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Oana Zenbee (小穴善兵衛)

One of the ringleaders of the Kasuke Uprising executed with Tada Kasuke, from Nire Village. His daughter Jun was also executed.

Obata Kagenori (小幡景憲)
1572 - 1663

Also known as: Obata Dougyuu

A Confucian scholar and samurai retainer of the Takeda clan who completed the Kouyou Gunkan begun by Kousaka Masanobu.

He later fought for Tokugawa Ieyasu at the Battle of Sekigahara in 1600.

Obu Toramasa (飯富虎昌)
1504 - November 11, 1565

Obu Toramasa, who according to some accounts was a descendant of Minamoto no Yoshiie, was a chief vassal of the Takeda Clan who first served Takeda Nobutora, then his son Takeda Shingen, and later became tutor to Shingen's eldest son Yoshinobu. He was one of Shingen's Twenty-Four Generals and was nicknamed "The Wild Tiger of Kai." However, he was implicated in a plot to rebel against Shingen by Yoshinobu and was forced to commit suicide at the age of 62.

Oda Nobunaga (織田信長)
1534 - 1582

Also called: Oda Kippoushi
Title: Kazusa no Suke, Owari no Kami

Historically: The first of the "Three Unifiers"; born in Owari to a samurai, his unbridled, ruthless ambitious and military tactical genius enabled him to gain control of the imperial court in 1573 after having driven the shogun out of Kyoto. His seal read "the realm subjected to military power". Murdered at the age of forty-nine by his vassal Akechi Mitsuhide in the Honnou-ji in Kyoto.

Odawara no Eki (小田原の役)
Feb. - July 1590

The Siege of Odawara in 1590 was the campaign by which Toyotomi Hideyoshi killed Houjou Ujimasa, exiled his son Houjou Ujinao, and eliminated the mighty Later Houjou Clan, ruler of the eight provinces of the Kantou, as a threat to his power.

The Houjou were not caught unprepared; guessing at Hideyoshi's intentions, they had made preparations by making a massive recruitment effort targeting men from 15 to 70 years of age, shoring up arms, and making large-scale renovations and repairs to Odawara Castle, Hachiouji Castle, Yamanaka Castle, Nirayama Castle, and others.

Toyotomi's main force consisted of Toyotomi Hidetsugu, Tokugawa Ieyasu, Oda Nobukatsu, Gamou Ujisato, Kuroda Yoshitaka, Hashiba Hidekatsu, Ukita Hideie, Oda Nobukane, Hosokawa Tadaoki, Kobayakawa Takakage, Kikkawa Hiroie, Hori Hidemasa, Ikeda Terumasa, Asano Nagamasa, Ishida Mitsunari, Natsuka Masaie, Hasegawa Hidekazu, Ootani Yoshitsugu, Ishikawa Kazumasa, Mashita Nagamori, Kanamori Nagachika, Tsutsui Sadatsugu, Ikoma Chikamasa, Hachisuka Iemasa, Ootomo Yoshimune, and Shimadu Hisayasu leading approx. 170,000 troops. His navy was lead by Chousokabe Motochika, Katou Yoshiakira, Kuki Yoshitaka, and Wakizaka Yasuharu with approx. 10,000 troops. An additional army lead by Maeda Toshiie, Maeda Toshinaga, Uesugi Kagekatsu, Sanada Masayuki, and Yoda Yasukuni came down from the north with approx. 35,000 troops.

In all, around 210,000 troops faced the Houjou 82,000 (though opinions differ on those numbers).

For the Houjou, Houjou Ujimasa, Houjou Ujinao, Houjou Ujitada, Houjou Ujiteru, Oota Ujifusa, [[Narita Ujinaga, Minagawa Hiroteru, Haga Yasutada, Matsuda Norihide, Kasahara Masaharu and Kasahara Masataka held Odawara Castle. Matsuda Yasunaga held Yamanaka Castle, Houjou Ujikatsu Yamanaka Castle then Tamanawa Castle, Houjou Ujinori Nirayama Castle, Daidouji Masashige Matsuida Castle, and Houjou Ujikuni Hachigata Castle.

Toyotomi's basic strategy held the troops from the north in reserve while sending his main army towards Odawara Castle, taking Yamanaka Castle, Nirayama Castle, and Ashigara Castle along the way. At the same time, his navy circled Izu Peninsula toward Odawara from the south. Though Toyotomi controlled an overwhelming force, the Houjou had gathered an elite force of 50,000 at Odawara Castle, with the most elite among them placed at Yamanaka, Nirayama, and Ashigara Castles.

One by one, the Houjou's supporting castles fell either to Toyotomi's main force or to the reserves from the north. At Odawara, however, only a night attack by Oota Ujifusa on the Houjou side and some skirmishes from the Toyotomi side could be called actual fighting.

In July, Ujinori and Ujifusa began peace negotiations via Ieyasu. The Houjou agreed to surrender, and Ujimasa and Ujiteru were moved to the guardhouse. They committed seppuku on the 10th of August.

Odawara-jou (小田原城)

Odawara Castle is a mountain castle located on a hill above Odawara City in present-day Kanagawa Prefecture and is a designated national historic site. It was built in 1417 by Oomori Yoriharu and greatly expanded by Houjou Souun when he took it in 1495. His son Houjou Ujitsuna made it his main stronghold, and so it remained for three more generations of the clan. Its extensive defenses repelled attacks by great warlords such as Uesugi Kenshin and Takeda Shingen. Toyotomi Hideyoshi took the castle in 1590 after the Houjou surrendered to him in the Siege of Odawara. He awarded it to Tokugawa Ieyasu after destroying most of its fortifications along with the Houjou lands.

Tokugawa gave the castle one of his senior retainers, Ookubo Tadayo, after the completion of Edo Castle, and it remained in the hands of the Ookubo Clan aside from a few decades in the late 1600s until the Meiji Era, when the castle was destroyed in 1870–1872 in obedience with imperial decree.

The area became Odawara Castle Park (also known as Castle Ruins Park) in 1950. The park includes an art museum, local history museum, city library, amusement park, and zoo. The present (historically inaccurate) structure, which mimics the much-reduced form of the castle in Ookubo Tadayo's time, was rebuilt in 1960 out of reinforced concrete to celebrate the 20th anniversary of the proclamation of Odawara as a city. Tokiwagi Gate (常磐木門) in the inner citadel, Akagane Gate (銅門) in the outer citadel, and Umade Gate (馬出門) were reconstructed in 1971, 1997, and 2009, respectively, in more historically accurate representations of their late Edo forms.

Odawara-shi (小田原市)

The City of Odawara, located in present-day Kanagawa Prefecture, flourished as the castle-town of the Houjou Clan, whose strategic fortress of Odawara Castle served as an impregnable stronghold for several generations of the clan during the Sengoku. During the Edo Period, it became the castle-town of Odawara-han and controlled the East Sea Road between Edo and Tokugawa stations west of Hakone.

Ogata Naoto (緒形直人)
1967

An actor from Kanagawa, Japan who has appeared in around 10 movie roles and 15 television roles, including narration for Tokyo Broadcasting System's ongoing documentary series, World Heritage from 1996-2001.

Ogurusu (小栗栖)

The village where Akechi Mitsuhide was supposedly set upon by bandits and killed after he lost the Battle of Yamazaki against Toyotomi Hideyoshi.

Okamoto (岡本)

A samurai and member of the Houjou Oumamawari-shuu in direct service to the head of the Houjou Clan.

Okehazama (桶狭間)

Lit. "Bucket Gorge", the place near modern-day Aichi Prefecture where the 26-year-old Oda Nobunaga fought the battle of Okehazama against Imagawa Yoshimoto in June of 1560. Imagawa Yoshimoto was on his way to Kyoto to attempt to become ruler of all Japan and was passing through Nobunaga's territory of Owari, intending to crush Nobunaga's forces with his army on his way to the capital.

On the morning of the battle, Nobunaga left his castle of Kiyosu and journeyed to Okehazama, and the most faithful and famous of his generals joined him with their men along the way: Mori Yoshinari, Mori Ranmaru's father, Shibata Katsuie, Sassa Narimasa, Ikeda Shonyu, Niwa Nagahide, Oyotomi Hideyoshi: in all, around 3000 men to Imagawa's 25,000.

Nobunaga's army, camouflaged by a passing summer thunderstorm, fell upon the Imagawa army while the latter was resting at Okehazama. Taken completely by surprise, the Iwagawa army scattered, and Imagawa Yoshimoto was killed.

This battle destroyed the Imagawa faction and began Nobunaga's path to unification.

on abokyabeiroshanau makabodara manihandoma jinbaraharabaritaya un

「オン・アボギャベイロシャノウ・マカボダラ・マニハンドマ・ジンバラハラバリタヤ・ウン」

Also known as: Koumyou Shingon: "The mantra of glory/mantra of light" (光明真言)

A mantra of Dainichi Nyorai which expiates sin, and brings fortune, ease, and longevity. It is a powerful all-purpose mantra which can be used to remove illness and injury and protect the user from poisonous creatures, demons, and the dead.

On amiritateizei kara un (オン・アミリタテイゼイ・カラ・ウン)

The mantra of Amitābha, the Buddha of Immeasurable Life and Light.

on anarei bishaji birabajiradariBandabandani bajirabanihanHuuntoruunhan sowaka ()

Also known as: Hakku Dharani—"Eight-Verse Dharani" (八句陀羅尼)

Part of one of the five Shurangama Mantras which appears in the seventh volume of the Shurangama Sutra. This mantra is the last line of the invocation used to summon the aid of Bishamonten, the Guardian of the North.

In Mirage of Blaze, this mantra is a portion of the spell used by Zen Master Kaisen to seal the onryou of Takeda Shingen after his death. This is also the incantation engraved on the bracelet Naoe gives to Yuzuru to confine Shingen after his revival.

on asanmagini un hatta (オン アサンマギニ ウン ハッタ)

Shingon used to call on vajra fire, which averts demons barring the way to knowledge. The accompanying ritual gesture is made with hands open, the palm of the left hand cupped protectively around the back of the right hand and thumbs touching, the whole forming a triangular shape. The eight fingers indication the direction of the fire.

on basara bokisha boku

「おん ばさら ぼきしゃ ぼく」

A mantra chanted at the end of a ritual to send any summoned powers back to their origins.

on bazaragini harachihataya sowaka

「オン・バザラギニ・ハラチハタヤ・ソワカ」

Also known as: hikougosin (被甲護身)

An incantation that casts a spiritual suit of armor around the receiver.

One description of the casting says: "Imagine that you have put on the armor of the Great Compassion and the Great Mercy of the Tathagata (Buddha), that all the demons and all those who would hinder the practitioner now see him enclosed in bright light and flames, like the orb of the sun."

on beishiramandaya sowaka

「オン・ベイシラマンダヤ・ソワカ」

A mantra calling upon / a homage to Bishamonten. (Beishiramandaya = Bishamonten.)

on dakini sahaharakyatei sowaka

「オン・ダキニ・サハハラキャテイ・ソワカ」

An invocation of protection from Dakini, a Buddhist deity who eats the hearts of the dead and is associated with the fox: "Oh Divine Eater of Human Flesh and those who follow you, I call upon you in fear and awe."

on deibayakisha mandamanda kakakaka sowaka.

「オン・デイバヤキシャ・マンダマンダ・カカカ・ソワカ」

The mantra of Shoumen Kongou, a Buddhist deity who repels the calamities of evil beasts, diseases, and thunder.

on kiri kaku un sowaka

「オン・キリ・カク・ウン・ソワカ」

The mantra of Dakini, a Buddhist deity who eats the hearts of the dead and is associated with the fox.

on sarabatataagyata hanna mannanau kyaromi

「オン・サラバタタァギャタ・ハンナ・マンナナウ・キャロミ」

Also known as: furai or furei "general gratitude" (普礼)

An expression of gratitude/general devotion to all the buddhas.

on shuchiri kyaro roha un kan sowaka

「オン・シュチリ・キャロ・ロハ・ウン・カン・ソワカ」

The mantra of Daiitoku Myouou, used during Daiitoku Myouou-hou.

on sonbanisonba un bazara un hatta

「オン・ソンバ・ニソンバ・ウンバザラ・ウン・ハッタ」
Also read as: om sumbha nisumbha hum vajra hum phat

The mantra of Gouzanze Myouou, used during Gouzanze Myouou-hou.

on sowahanba shuda sarabatarama sowahanba shudokan

「オン・ソワハンバ・シュダ・サラバタラマ・ソワハンバ・シュドハン」

Also known as: jousangou "purification of the three" (浄三業)

An incantation that purifies the body, words, and mind. Used before a complex invocation.

on torotoro un (オン トロトロ ウン)

Shingon of the treasure carriage, used to send the carriage which goes out to receive the idol of the Buddha. The accompany ritual gesture is made with the middle, ring, and little fingers interwoven, with forefingers touching and heels of hands touching, and thumbs spread.

Oniwa Tsunamoto (鬼庭綱元)
1549 - 1640

Also known as: Oniniwa Tsunamoto, Moniwa Nobumoto

A vassal of the Date Clan under Date Masamune whose father, Oniwa Yoshinao, died at the Battle of Hitotoribashi. Masamune's trust in him and his admininstrative skills were such that he was given important administrative duties over other key retainers at the age of 38.

In 1590, when Toyotomi Hideyoshi suspected Masamune of treason, Tsunamoto went to the capital in his lord's defense. Hideyoshi was so impressed by his ability that it was said that he gave one of his concubines to Tsunamoto.

Tsunamoto would later serve Masamune's son, Date Hidemune, with the same faithfulness.

Oniwa Yoshinao (鬼庭良直)
1513 - 1586

Father of Oniwa Tsunamoto who served three generations of the Date Clan. He died at the Battle of Hitotoribashi, in which he was a commander despite his advanced age.

onryou (怨霊)

Lit.: "vengeful ghost"; the spirits of those who died in the Sengoku period who are still so filled with rage and hatred that they continue to exist in the world as vengeful spirits instead of being purified and reborn.

onshou (怨将)

Lit.: "vengeful general": the spirits of the warlords of the Sengoku period, who continue their battles even in modern-age Japan.

onshou-taiji (怨将退治)

Lit. "onshou-extermination": exorcism of the onshou

Ooishi Sadahisa (大石定久)

Title: Musashi Shugodai

Ooishi Sadahisa was a warlord of Musashi, son of Ooishi Sadashige and master of Takiyama Castle. He succeeded his father as head of the family, but in 1546 upon the Uesugi Clan's defeat to Houjou Ujiyasu in the Battle of Kawagoe Castle, he married his daughter Hisa to Ujiyasu's third son Houjou Ujiteru and adopted him, upon which he retired and yielded both Takiyama Castle and his title to Ujiteru. After retirement he worked to further diplomatic relations between the Houjou and Uesugi Kenshin.

Ooishi Tsunamoto (大石綱元)
1532 - 1601

Titles: Harima no Kami

At first a vassal of the Sannai-Uesugi Clan, he became a vassal of the Nagao Clan when he accompanied Uesugi Norimasa into Echigo to seek the assistance of Nagao Kagetora (Uesugi Kenshin).

He took the side of Uesugi Kagekatsu during the Otate no Ran. After the war, he became one of the three magistrates of the Aizu along with Yasuda Yoshimoto and Iwai Nobuyoshi and was the chamberlain of Hobara Castle. His forte was in the maintainence of highways and other public works construction.

Ookuni Saneyori (大国実頼)
1562 - 1622

Title: Tajima no Kami

Second son of Higuchi Kanetoyo, younger brother of Naoe Kanetsugu, vassal of the Uesugi Clan. He fought for Uesugi Kagekatsu in the Otate no Ran. In 1582 he was adopted into the Okuni Clan as its heir. When he became head of the clan, he changed the clan name to Ookuni by Kagekatsu's command. (小国->大国, "small country"->"large country".)

Oomachi-shi (大町市)

A city located at the foot of the Northern Japanese Alps in Nagano Prefecture near Matsumoto. It was founded in 1954.

Oomura Sumitada (大村純忠)
1533 - 1587

Also known as: childhood—Shodomaru (勝童丸), baptized—Don Batholomeo

A Sengoku daimyo who was known throughout Japan for being the first daimyo to convert to Christianity after Jesuit missionaries arrived in Nagasaki. He opened the port of Nagasaki to foreign trade.

Oomura-shi (大村市)

A city located in Nagasaki Prefecture which was ruled by the Oomura Clan. In the second half of the Sixteenth Century, Oomura Sumitada became the first daimyo to convert to Christianity.

Oonuki (大貫)

The guidance counselor at Fukashi Junior High School while Takaya was a student there.

Described as a middle-aged man with a deep, harsh voice, an overbearing expression, and bad breath. He wears a threadbare necktie and trousers that always look like the same pair. Rumor has it that he's the hen-pecked husband of a woman from one of the old families, and takes his shame and resentment of being adopted into his wife's family out on the students. He always carries an elastic stick pointer and likes browbeating the students in the guise of counseling them. Also rumored to have made a female student take her clothes off in front of him.

Oooka Echizen (大岡越前)

Oooka Echizen was a prime-time historical television drama that ran from March 16, 1970 to March 15, 1999 in Japan. Its 402 episodes centered around Oooka Tadasuke (1677–1752), a historical figure who was a magistrate of Edo during the time of Tokugawa Yoshimune. The show was a detective-courtroom program with the magistrate serving as chief of police, judge and jury.

Oota Doukan (太田道灌)
1432 - August 25, 1486

Also known as: Oota Sukenaga (太田資長)

Oota Doukan was a Japanese samurai warrior-poet, military tactician and Buddhist monk who is best remembered for designing and building Edo Castle (now the Imperial Palace). He served the Ougigayatsu-Uesugi Clan and built Edo Castle for Uesugi Sadamasa over Edo Shigenaga's earlier fortifications. In the 16th century, Tokugawa Ieyasu would choose Edo Castle to be his home upon his transfer to the Kantou.

During Nagao Kageharu's Rebellion, Doukan fought 30-odd battles and almost single-handedly averted the crisis for the Ougigayatsu and Yamanouchi Uesugi clans. His efforts resulted in a great increase in the influence of the Ougigayatsu-Uesugi Clan as well as his own stature.

The Ougigayatsu-Uesugi Clan, fearful and suspicious of his rising power (possibly justified, possibly not) had Doukan assassinated at Uesugi Sadamasa's residence in Sagami.

Ooura-tenshudou (大浦天主堂)

Named a National Treasure as Japan's oldest gothic-style church, this Catholic cathedral was built under the direction of French priest Bernard Petitjean in 1864 in the City of Nagasaki. It was officially named the "Church of the twenty-six Saints of Japan" and faces in the direction of Nishizaka Hill.

Oowakudani (大涌谷)

Lit.: "Great Boiling Valley"

Oowaku Valley is a volcanic valley located in Hakone, Kanagawa Prefecture with sulphuric vents from the Hakone Volcano. It was once known as "Hell Valley" and was given its current name by the Meiji Emperor and Empress during their visit.

It is known for its "kuro-tamago," or "black eggs," which are eggs hard-boiled in the hot springs. Eating one is said to add seven years to your life.

Oowaku Valley is accessible via the Hakone Ropeway.

Osaka Kintetsu Buffaloes (大阪近鉄バファローズ)

Also known as: Kintetsu Pearls (1950-1958), Kintetsu Buffalo (1959-1961), Kintetsu Buffaloes (1962-1998), Osaka Kintetsu Buffaloes (1999-2004), Orix Buffaloes (2005-)

A professional baseball team in the Pacific League based in Osaka, Japan. It was founded in 1950 as the Kintetsu Pearls, owned by the Kinki Nippon Railway Co., and was the least successful team in the league (the only team in pro Japanese baseball to have never won a Japan Series).

It was sold in 2004 to the Orix Group, owner of the Orix Blue Wave baseball team, and the two teams were merged into the Orix Buffaloes.

Osaka-fu (大阪府)

A prefecture located on Honshuu island, Japan. Its capital is the city of Osaka.

Osaka-jou (大坂城/大阪城)

Located in Osaka City, Osaka Prefecture, Osaka Castle was built by Toyotomi Hideyoshi on the former site of the Ikkou Sect's Ishiyama Hongan Temple. He completed it in 1598 after 5 years of construction.

Osaka-shi (大阪市)

The City of Osaka is the capital of Osaka Prefecture and the commercial and gourmet food center of Japan.

Osen-no-kata (お船の方)
1557? - 1637

Daughter of Naoe Sanetsuna who became wife of Naoe Nobutsuna and later Naoe Kanetsugu.

Osugi and P-ko (おすぎとピーコ)
Jan. 18, 1945

Also known as: Osugi: Sugiura Takaaki (杉浦孝昭), P-ko: Sugiura Katsuaki (杉浦克昭)

Osugi and P-ko are popular identical twin actors in Japan. Osugi is also a film critic, while P-ko is a fashion critic and chanson singer.

Otate (御館)

Uesugi Kenshin built the Otate in present-day Niigata Prefecture as residence for Uesugi Norimasa, Kantou Kanrei, when the latter escaped from Hira Castle in 1552, which was under attack by Houjou Ujiyasu with 20,000 soldiers, and sought aid from Kenshin (Nagao Kagetora at the time) at Kasugayama Castle. Kenshin later used the Otate as his public government office.

In 1578, after Kenshin's death, Kagetora escaped from Kasugayama Castle and set up his headquarters at Otate on June 18th during the Otate no Ran. Kagekatsu attacked Otate in February of the following year, finally destroying it by flame in April after Kagetora and his family had evacuated.

Nothing of the building (which had not been grandiose in the first place) remains today; the area is now mostly devoted to housing districts with a small "Otate Park."

Otate no Ran (御館の乱)

Lit.: "War of the Castle". The Otate no Ran was the name given to the intra-clan war fought between Uesugi Kagekatsu and Uesugi Kagetora, both adopted sons of Uesugi Kenshin, for succession to the position of head of the Uesugi Clan after Kenshin died. The war bifurcated the Uesugi commanders and in the end significantly weakened Uesugi's power. The "Otate", or "Castle/Mansion" refers to the residence Uesugi Kenshin built for the Kantou Kanrei, Uesugi Norimasa, near Kasugayama Castle. He used it as a government office after Norimasa passed on the title to him and the lands around Kasugayama Castle were developed.

On March 9th in the 6th year of Tenshou (April 15th, 1578), Uesugi Kenshin collapsed at Kasugayama Castle's privy from an "unforeseen nervous weakness" (some speculate poison or assassination) and died on the 13th (April 19th, 1578) without ever regaining consciousness.

Traditionally, it is held that he died without ever deciding on an heir. Some point to evidence such as Uesugi Kagetora accompanying him on shrine visits at the New Year and not being forced to perform military service (though proof of the latter is sketchy), to support theories that Kenshin favored Kagetora. It is evident that Kagetora, who was adopted from the mighty Houjou Clan, ruler of the Kantou, had unshakeable standing within the Uesugi Clan even after the Echigo-Sagami Alliance fell apart in 1571.

On the other hand, Kenshin had conferred the highest military powers within the Uesugi family on Kagekatsu, and the Uesugi retainers used similar titles for Kenshin and Kagekatsu.

Pointing to some of the above reasons, many historians argue that Kenshin had intended to pass the title of Kantou Kanrei and position of clan head of the Sannai-Uesugi Clan to Kagetora while making Kagekatsu the master of Echigo and the head of the Echigo-Uesugi Clan. There is no way of telling based on current evidence which would have been the sole heir.

In any case, a dispute over the rightful heir to Kenshin arose between Kagekatsu and Kagetora immediately. Kagekatsu moved first. On the day following Kenshin's death, Kakizaki Haruie, viewed as being in the Kagetora faction, was assassinated (there is another theory that Haruie was killed before the Otate no Ran, when his father was accused of treason). Also, according to one primary historical record, Kagekatsu moved quickly to occupy the inner citadel, treasury, and armory of Kasugayama Castle, though the exact date is unknown. Kagekatsu proclaimed himself the rightful heir in a letter dated March 24th (April 30th) and began attacking Kagetora, barricaded in the Third Wing.

Kagekatsu and Kagetora's forces fought in what is now Jouetsu City on May 5th (June 10th, 1578), and until Kagetora evacuated in the middle of the month, hostilities continued within Kasugayama Castle. During that time, both Kagekatsu and Kagetora tried to win the various Echigo generals to their side.

Commanders committed to Kagekatsu:
- Amakasu Kagemochi: Oumi no Kami
- Higuchi Kanetoyo, Naoe Kanetsugu, Ookuni Saneyori
- Honjou Shigenaga: Echizen no Kami
- Irobe Nagazane: Son of Irobe Katsunaga, master of Hirabayashi Castle
- Joujou Masashige: one of Kenshin's adopted sons, Kagekatsu's brother-in-law, head of the Joujou-Uesugi family
- Kakizaki Noriie: Noto no Kami
- Kanou Hideharu
- Kawada Nagachika: Buzen no Kami
- Murakami Kunikiyo: head of the Yamaura-Uesugi family
- Naoe Nobutsuna: Yamato no Kami, master of Yoita Castle
- Ooishi Tsunamoto: Harima no Kami
- Saitou Tomonobu: Shimotsuke no Kami, master of Akada Castle
- Shibata Nagaatsu, Shibata Shigeie, Ijimino Nobumune
- Suda Mitsuchika
- Yamayoshi Kagenaga: head of the Yamayoshi Clan, master of Koba Castle
- Yasuda Akimoto: head of the Echigo-Yasuda Clan, master of Iiyama Castle
- Yasuda Nagahide: master of Yasuda Castle
- Yoshie Munenobu, Yoshie Kagesuke, Nakajou Kageyasu

Commanders committed to Kagetora:
- Ashina Moritaka: head of the Ashina Clan
- Ayukawa Morinaga: master of Oobasawa Castle
- Daihouji Yoshiuji: head of the Dewa Daihouji Clan
- Horie Munechika (who later betrayed him): Suruga no Kami, master of Samegao Castle
- Honjou Hidetsuna: master of Numata Castle
- Honjou Saneyori
- Houjou Ujimasa, Houjou Ujiteru, Houjou Ujikuni: Kagetora's elder brothers, head and generals of the Houjou Clan
- Kaji Hidetsuna: nephew of Uesugi Kenshin, master of Kaji Castle
- Kanamari Chikatsuna: master of Sanjou Castle
- Kawada Shigechika: Houki no Kami
- Kitajou Takahiro, Kitajou Kagehiro
- Kurokawa Kiyozane: master of Kurokawa Castle
- Nagao Kagenao
- Sanbonji Sadanaga: head of the Sanbonji-Uesugi Clan, master of Fudouzan Castle, Iyo no Kami
- Shimodaira Shurinosuke: master of Jouhukuji Castle
- Takeda Katsuyori (who was later bribed by Kagekatsu and entered into an alliance with him): head of the Takeda Clan
- Uesugi Norimasa: Kenshin's adopted father, former Kantou Kanrei
- Uesugi Kagenobu: originally Nagao, head of the Koshin-Nagao family
- Uesugi Norishige: son of Uesugi Norimasa

On May 13th (June 18th), with the lines between the commanders drawn, Kagetora finally retreated from the Third Wing to the Otate and requested aid from his brother Houjou Ujimasa while ordering his troops to set fire to the lands around Kasugayama Castle. He attacked Kasugayama Castle with around 6000 troops on May 17th (June 22nd), but was repelled.

He regrouped and attacked again on the 22nd (June 27th) with the same result. Around this time, hostilities between Kagekatsu and Kagetora's forces also began within the broader region. In Kouzuke, Kitajou Takahiro and Kitajou Kagehiro (father and son) sent forth troops with their aim on Kunohe Castle. Kagekatsu had no troops to spare at this point, and Kagetora's side easily took several castles in Miyano and Ogawa. Kagetora's side had completed organization for drawing Houjou troops into Echigo at this point, but since the distance was great, the Houjou requested assistance from their ally Takeda Katsuyori. Katsuyori sent an advance guard of 20,000 under the command of Takeda Nobutoyo, which arrived at the Echigo-Shinshuu border on May 29th (July 4th).

Aside from the Houjou and Takeda, Kagetora also received assistance from Ashina Moritaka. However, Moritaka met dogged resistance from Kagekatsu's forces and was stopped in his tracks. Still, Kagetora held the advantage at this point. The only problem: Ujimasa had little interest in moving to the offensive.

Kagekatsu, at a disadvantage now that he was being attacked from three directions, took a big gamble. He sent an advance guard to Katsuyori's camp offering a large amount of money and Kouzuke's rice fields in exchange for a Kagekatsu-Takeda alliance. How Kagekatsu knew that Katsuyori was painfully short on funds after his ignominious defeat at the Battle of Nagashino to Oda Nobunaga and Tokugawa Ieyasu is unknown. Katsuyori arrived at Kaidu Castle and conferred with Nobutoyo. He entered into an alliance with Kagekatsu on June 12th (July 16th).

Now that Kagekatsu's side had successfully bought Takeda, they no longer needed to watch their backs. On the day the alliance was made Kagekatsu took Noumine Castle, allowing him to communicate with Sakato Castle from Kasugayama Castle. On the following day, Kagetora's side lost Uesugi Kagenobu, and their situation worsened day by day. Kagekatsu pressed towards various castles held by Kagetora's forces in Ecchuu. Katsuyori continued peace negotiations with Kagekatsu at full tilt; they were concluded on June 29th (August 2nd), and he withdrew his troops on August 28th (September 29th).

In the following month, Ujimasa finally began moving in earnest. Houjou Ujiteru and Houjou Ujikuni set out for Echigo by Ujimasa's command. They crossed Mikuni Pass and took Kabasawa Castle, within striking distance of Sakato Castle. However, the castle was well-guarded by Kagekatsu's forces, and with the onset of winter the Houjou forces could not advance to Kasugayama.

Finally, with Ujikuni and Takahiro left behind to guard Kabasawa Castle and Kagehiro acting as rear guard, they retreated. The Takeda forces, withdrawing from the lands around Kasugayama Castle, loitered between Kasugayama/Otate and Sakato Castle, in the end acting as a deterrent against Kagetora and Houjou forces. At the end of the year (January in the Gregorian calendar) Kagekatsu married Katsuyori's younger sister.

Having skillfully removed external threats and gathered support within the clan, Kagekatsu decided that the internal war would be resolved before the snow thawed. On the other hand, Kagetora was losing both supporters and castles. On February 2nd (February 27, 1579) Kagekatsu ordered a general offensive against Kagetora at Otate. Kagehiro was killed.

Kagekatsu recaptured Kabasawa Castle from the Houjou. Kagetora escaped from Otate and, with no hope of relief from the Houjou, who were blocked off by snow, sent his eldest son along with Kenshin's adopted father Uesugi Norimasa to negotiate for peace. On the way to Kagekatsu's camp, they were surrounded by Kagekatsu's troops and killed (there are accounts that the order actually came from Kasugayama Castle). On his flight from Otate towards the Kantou, Kagetora stopped at Samegao Castle. There he was betrayed by its master, Horie Munechika, and committed suicide along with his family on March 24th (April 19th, 1579).

Though Kagekatsu won the internal war, he would continue to face resistance from Honjou Hidetsuna, Kanamari Chikatsuna and others, and would not have total control of the clan until a year later.

The Otate no Ran would become one of the underlying reasons for the destruction of the Takeda Clan and the drastic decline of the Uesugi Clan's power.

<small>Note: Japanese dates given in this entry are based on the lunar calendar; Gregorian Calendar dates in () were calculated using <a href="http://www.uni-tuebingen.de/geschichte-japans/nengo_calc.htm">NengoCalc</a>.</small>

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