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Abarenbou Shogun (暴れん坊将軍)

Also known as: Chronicle in Praise of Yoshimune: The Bold Shogun (Yoshimune Hyoubanki: Abarenbou Shogun)

A Japanese historical drama set in the eighteenth century which showed fictious events in the life of Tokugawa Yoshimune (1684-1751), the eighth Tokugawa Shogun. The main series ran from 1978 to 2003, and ranks among the longest-running shows in its genre.

Actor Matsudaira Ken originated the role of Yoshimune, the main character, a nearly invincible samurai warrior who roams freely about his capital punishing evil and rewarding good in the guise of Tokuda Shinnosuke (Shin-san), a freeloader at the Megumi fire company. He played that role for the entirety of the show's run.

aneue (姉上)

A more formal way to address an older sister than "onee-san" or its variants; could be translated as "honorable elder sister".

aniue (兄上)

A more formal way to address an older brother than "onii-san" or its variants; could be translated as "honorable elder brother".

anji reidou (暗示霊導)

Lit.: "spirit guidance with suggestion": a type of reidouhou in which one hypnotizes the spirit before luring it away, thus allowing the spirit to be controlled.

bakufu (幕府)

Lit.: "tent government", the government of the shogun, who is the 'supreme general of the samurai'. Starting from Minamoto no Yoritomo, the first shogun of the Kamakura shogunate, until the Meiji Restoration, shoguns and their bakufu held the pratical power in Japan and relegated the emperor to the position of figurehead.

basashi (馬刺し)

Raw horseflesh served as salami in thin slices dipped in soy sauce, often with ginger and onions added. In Japan, Matsumoto is one of the places famous for this dish.

Bishamonten-tou (毘沙門天刀)

The Sword of Bishmonten is an incarnation of Bishamonten, a physical blade which can be summoned only by the general of the Meikai Uesugi Army. It contains the power of «choubuku», and any spirit cut by it is exorcised; however, none-spiritual objects are not harmed by its blade.

Its summoning calls upon Namu Tobatsu Bishamonten with the incantation "on beishiramandaya sowaka". Its dismissal uses the incantation of unsummoning, "on basara bokisha boku."

blood types

One Japanese superstition says that blood-types are linked to personality:

A: calm, composed, serious, reliable, perfectionist, arrogant, emotions suppressed
B: curious, bright, cheerful, enthusiastic, uncoventional, superficial, unreliable, selfish
O: carefree, generous, independant, outgoing, social, flexible, clumsy, flighty
AB: sensitive, considerate, careful, efficient, strict, moody, unpredictable

Central League (セントラル・リーグ)

Also known as: Ce League

Founded in 1948, it is one of Japan's two major baseball leagues (the other being the Pacific League). The winner of the league pennant plays the winner of the other league in the Japan Series. The league is comprised of six teams:

- Chuunichi Dragons (Nagoya)
- Hanshin Tigers (Nishinomiya)
- Hiroshima Touyou Carp (Hiroshima)
- Tokyo Yakult Swallows (Tokyo)
- Yokohama BayStars (Yokohama)
- Yomiuri Giants (Tokyo)

chance theme (チャンステーマ)

Melodies played by baseball fans in Japan to cheer on their team, usually when the team is on the offensive. Each team has its own set of melodies—for example, the Giants have "The Hit Parade" and "The Butterfly" (Smile.dk Dance Dance Revolution song) as two of their chance songs.

The exact origin of the practice is unknown, but as early as 1980 the Kintetsu Buffaloes cheering party played the Bold Shogun theme to cheer on their runners in the endgame.

chanpon (ちゃんぽん)

A famous noodle dish developed in Nagasaki in which a mixture of fish, vegetables, and meat are tossed together as topping.

Chichibu Ondo (秩父音頭)

Called one of the three most famous folk songs of the Kantou region, a traditional dance song written around 200 years ago.

choubuku (調伏)

Also known as: choubukuryoku (調伏力)

The special power given to the Yasha-shuu to banish onryou to the Underworld using the dharani of Uesugi Kenshin's guardian deity, Bishamonten. The types of choubuku include "kouhou-choubuku", "ressa-choubuku", "kekkai-choubuku", etc. Each choubuku is begun with the incantation "bai" and the ritual hand gesture of Bishamonten's symbol.

Choubuku does not work against kanshousha, who have bodies of their own.

Chuunichi Dragons (中日ドラゴンズ)

Also called: Chuunichi, Dragons, Ryuu (which is "dragon" in Japanese)

A baseball team in the Japanese Central League, founded in 1936 and based in Nagoya City. "Chuunichi" literally means "central Japan", because Nagoya is the chief city in the Central Region of Japan.

Chuushingura (忠臣蔵)

Chuushingura, or 'collections of the faithful retainers,' are fictionalized accounts of the true story of the Forty-seven Ronin avenging their master Asano Naganori after he was forced to commit seppuku for assaulting a court official. The samurai avenged their master's honor by killing the official, Kira Yoshinaka, and were forced to commit seppuku in turn. The tale of loyalty, sacrifice, persistence, and honor became one of the most popular and familiar stories in Japan, with various kabuki, bunraku, stage, film, novel, and television productions.

daimyo (大名)

Lit.: "great name"; feudal warlords of Japan

Dandelions

A glasslot amateur baseball team founded by Shibuya Yuuri upon returning to Earth after he is crowned Maou of Shinma Kingdom. He is #8, and the captain and catcher of the team.

The team name plays on Yuuri's favorite baseball team, the Saitama Seibu Lions.

Edo-jidai (江戸時代)

The Edo period in Japanese history, which lasted from 1603 until 1867, was established by Tokugawa Ieyasu and was the period in which Japan was ruled by the Tokugawa Shogunate. It is seen as the beginning of modern Japan. During this period, the Shogunate perceived Christianity as a threat to the stability of Japan and actively persecuted adherents of the religion until it was almost completely eradicated. During this period Japan also isolated itself from the rest of the world, an isolation ending only with the appearance of Commodore Matthew Perry's ships in Edo Bay in 1853.

Emishi (蝦夷)

A group of people constituting several tribes who lived in northeastern Honshuu, possibly indigenous and descended from the Joumon people and/or related to the Ainu, ethnically separate from the Japanese with their own language.

Some tribes became allies of the Japanese, while others were hostile. In warfare they engaged in guerilla tactics with horse archery and hit-and-runs, which were effective against the less mobile Imperial infantry until early Japanese warriors adopted these strategies as well. Though efforts to subjugate the Emishi in the 8th Century were initially unsuccessfully, Sakanoue no Tamuramaro succeeded in his campaigns against the Emishi, beginning the gradual submission of tribes and the conquest of their lands.

Fukuoka SoftBank Hawks (福岡ソフトバンクホークス)

A professional Japanese baseball team based in Fukuoka, Fukuoka Prefecture, part of the Pacific League. The team was bought on January 28, 2005 by the SoftBank Corporation; before that it was known as the Fukuoka Daiei Hawks.

Fuurinkazan (風林火山)

Lit. "Wind-Forest-Fire-Mountain"; Takeda Shingen's battle flag bore these words, which meant: "swift as the wind, deliberate as the forest, insidious as fire, unmovable as the mountains".

gebaku (外縛)

Also known as: gebakuhou (外縛法), gaibaku

Lit.: "outer bind"; a method of tying a spirit body or physical body to one place such that they cannot move, also commonly called "paralysis". Kagetora and company use gebakuhou when they wish to perform «choubuku» on especially powerful spirits or a large host of spirits during "kouhou-choubuku" or "kekkai-choubuku", etc.

geta (下駄)

Japanese-style wooden clogs

goma-dan (護摩壇)

Lit.: "Rite of Buddhist cedar-stick burning platform"; enormous pyres used in Esoteric Buddhism for public prayer, made up of thousands of cedar wooden sticks with inscriptions of people's prayers. These rites originated in India as a way of making offerings to the gods.

There are various types of goma rituals, including those used for prayers for good health, fortune, and peace, as well as those used for exorcisms and summoning the protection of the gods.

goshinha (護身波)

Lit. "wave of self-protection"; the goshinha is a protective mesh spun from fine strands of spiritual energy which surrounds the caster and protects from an opponent's spiritual as well as physical attacks. The mesh gains strength and stability when it is multi-layered and becomes the goshinheki. The goshinha is Naoe's forte.

goshinheki (護身壁)

Lit.: "wall of self-protection"; the goshinheki is a barrier constructed for an instant using spiritual energy. The goshinha is effective when maintained, but the goshinheki takes shape in the instant the caster is attacked and is a basic method of self-protection. However, its weakness is that it cannot protect the caster against 100% of the damage caused by the attack.

goshinkou (護身光)

Lit. "light of self-protection"; a protective barrier along the lines of the goshinha which looks like a cloak of gold light, used by the Gohou Douji.

gyoza (ギョーザ)

The Japanese version of Chinese dumplings, typically consisting of minced pork, cabbage, Chinese chives, sesame oil, and garlic/ginger in a thin dough wrapping and boiled or pan-fried.

gyuudon (牛丼)

Lit.: "beef bowl": a Japanese dish consisting of rice covered with beef and onion simmered in a mildly sweet sauce flavored with soy sauce and mirin. It's a very popular dish in Japan, where it can be found in many restaurants and fast food chains.

Hakone Tozan Tetsudou (箱根登山鉄道)

The Hakone Tozan Railway is a private railway company whose core lines are located in Odawara and Hakone, Kanagawa Prefecture. It is a part of the large Odakyuu Group.

The company operates both rail lines and cable cars (Hakone Tozan Cable Car). Its lines were founded in 1888, and its Hakone Tozan Line is the oldest mountain railway in Japan.

hakonha (破魂波)

The "soul-ripping attack" with which Oda Nobunaga defeated Kagetora, said to be capable of destroying the soul itself, removing it from the wheel of reincarnation.

han (藩)

The domain or fiefdom of a daimyo.

Hanshin Tigers (阪神タイガース)

A professional Japanese baseball team based in Nishinomiya, Hyougo Prefecture, founded in 1935. It is one of the oldest baseball clubs in Japan and is owned by the Hanshin Electric Railway Company. It is part of the Japanese Central League.

Hiragumo (平蜘蛛)

Also known as: Kotenmyou Hiragumo (古天明平蜘蛛)

Lit.: "flat spider"/"ancient dawn flat spider": a priceless Sengoku-era tea kettle owned by tea-master Matsunaga Hisahide which Oda Nobunaga coveted, so named because it was shaped like a crouched spider. The hiratagumo (written with the same characters) is a type of spider (uroctea compactilis) found throughout Japan.

When Nobunaga besieged Hisahide's castle at Shigisan with 20,000 troops, he declared, "If you should give the Hiragumo kettle over to me, I shall spare your life"—to which Hisahide replied, "Nobunaga shall have neither my head nor the Hiragumo kettle!"

Hisahide smashed the kettle before he committed seppuku to prevent Nobunaga from taking possession of it (another account says that he filled it with gunpower and blasted it along with his head over the castle walls).

(Though in the present era rare tea implements are valued highly, in the Sengoku era they were worth entire fiefdoms. One could not be a first-class tea master without owning one of these items.)

Hiroshima Touyou Carp (広島東洋カープ)

Also known as: Hiroshima, Carp, Koi ("carp" in Japanese)

A baseball team in the Japanese Central League, founded in 1949 and based in Hiroshima City. The team was founded with the name "Hiroshima Carp"; the "Touyou" part of the name came from the Touyou Kougyou Company (now Mazda), which became the team's chief sponsor in 1968.

hitobashira (人柱)

Lit.: "human pillar"; human sacrifices made to the gods during the construction of dikes, bridges, castles, etc. with the hope that the building would be protected against floods, invaders, and the like. The sacrifice is made by burying the person alive.

Hitotoribashi no Kassen (人取り橋の合戦/人取橋の戦い)

A battle fought between Date Masamune's 13,000 warriors and the 30,000 combined forces of the Hatakeyama, Satake, Ashina, Souma, and other clans in the neighboring area in Masamune's first years as the head of his clan. The Date warriors were driven back from Hitotori Bridge on the Seto River to Motomiya Castle, where, on the verge of annihilation, they prepared to make a last stand. However, in the night Satake Yoshishige's forces were miraculously called away by an invasion on the Satake's own land, and the rest of the clans retreated.

honorifics

A brief list of honorifics used in address:

san (さん) - the most common honorific, usually used to address someone outside one's immediate circle with respect
kun (君) - usually used towards boys and men of junior status or equal age and status
chan (ちゃん) - a diminutive used mainly towards children, and intimate friends, especially women; also used as an endearment for girls
sama (様) - the formal form of "san", showing a high level of respect
senpai (先輩) - used to refer to someone with a more senior status, such as a freshman towards a senior
sensei (先生) - often translated as "teacher", but can actually be used to show respect for anyone with superior knowledge in a field, including doctors and writers
dono/tono (殿) - an antiquated term which roughly translates to "lord", used to show great respect for the addressee, who can be of equal or higher status than the speaker
uji/shi (氏) - in ancient times, carried the meaning "of the ~ clan" or "of the ~ surname"; now used in formal speech and writing to refer to someone unfamiliar to the speaker.

Houjutsu (法術)

Lit. "ritual art": the magic of the humans, which among other things can be used to seal Majutsu.

Ikkou-ikki (一向一揆)

Lit.: "Single-minded Revolt", largely disorganized mobs of peasant farmers, monks, Shinto priests and local nobles who rose up against samurai rule in the 15th and 16th centuries following the ideologies of the Ikkou School. Rennyo, the head abbot of the True Pure Lands School at Hongan Temple might be called their nominal leader, but the revolt continued after his death in 1499. Kennyo, who became head abbot of Hongan Temple in 1554, led the Ikkou Sect and directed the Ikkou-ikki in the late 1500s.

Ikkou-shuu (一向宗)

Lit.: "One-minded School/Sect", a small, militant, antinomian offshoot of True Pure Land Buddhism founded by 13th-century monk Ikkou Shunjou. Its ideologies provided the basis for a wave of uprisings against feudal rule in the late 15th and 16th centuries, such as the Ikkou-ikki revolts. Oda Nobunaga eventually destroyed the sect's two large temple-fortresses, Nagashima and Ishiyama Hongan Temple and slaughtered most of its sectarians in those areas. Tokugawa Ieyasu defeated the followers of the sect in Mikawa in 1564 in the Battle of Azukizaka. The last of the Ikkou sect fought alongside Toyotomi Hideyoshi in the 1580s.

itako (いたこ)

Traditional blind female shamans from Northern Japan who are renowned for their ability to speak with the dead.

jibakurei (地縛霊)

Lit. "earth-bound spirit"; a spirit who has a strong attachment to the place of its death and is therefore bound to it as a spirit. The attachment is usually an intense hatred towards someone or something. This bound is not easily broken, and requires the use of very strong powers in a ceremony such as reidouhou.

jichinhou (地鎮法)

Lit.: "earth-tranquilizing method"; a spell that neutralizes an invocation of the dead.

jike (地気)

Lit.: Earth-energy; the 'mood' or 'energy' of the earth, generated by the accumulated energies of both living beings and spirits who live in that location. Conversely, the earth-energy also influences the energies of its inhabitants.

jike-kekkai (地気結界)

Lit.: "earth-energy barrier"; one type of juso-kekkai which is erected for the purpose of manipulating the 'mood' or 'energy' of the earth, which in turn influences all living beings and spirits within its radius. It can be used to brainwash people, as in the case of a saimin-kekkai.

kaki (火鬼)

Lit.: "Fire demon"; clumps of pathos left behind by those who died in fires. They are an immaterial type of tsukumogami which invite disasters associated with fire.

Kamaitachi (窮奇/鎌鼬/かまいたち)

Also known as: cutting whirlwind, razor whirlwind

A wind demon commonly depicted in Japanese folklore as a trio of weasels with sharp claws, riding on a gust of wind to cut into the skin of their victims at lightning speed.

Kamakura Shogunate (鎌倉幕府)

A military dictatorship which ruled Japan from 1185 (formally recognized in 1192) to 1333. The Kamakura Shogunate began when Minamoto no Yoritomo seized power from the imperial court in 1158 and made himself de factor ruler of the country. This militant goverment gave rise to a powerful warrior class, which had previously been considered subordinate and inferior.

After Yoritomo's death, Houjou Tokimasa, head of the Houjou Clan, claimed the title of regent over Yoritomo's son and heir Minamoto no Yoriie. He eventually made the title hereditary, and the Houjou Clan became the real power behind the shogunate. in 1333, the Kamakura Shogunate came to an end when its most powerful general, Ashikaga Takauji, sided with the emperor and destroyed the Houjou Clan. Ashikaga Takauji then established the Ashikaga Shogunate.

Kan (貫)

A measure of currency used in the Sengoku Era, equivalent to 2 koku.

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